Species list


For convenience, we've broken this section into two parts. The first lists major guides to opisthobranchs that are available to the general public and other texts that we've found useful over the years. The second lists papers cited elsewhere on the site.



Abbott, Isabella A. &  Hohn M. Huisman. 2004. Marine Green and Brown Algae of the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Pr., Honolulu. 259 pp.

Barns, Robert D.
1987. Invertebrate Zoology (4th edition). W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 893 pp.

Behrens, David W. 2005. Nudibranch Behavior. New World Publications, Jacksonville. 176 pp.

Behrens, David W. & Alicia Hermosillo. 2005. Eastern Pacific Nudibranchs. Sea Challengers, Monterey. 137 pp.

Bertsch, Hans & Scott Johnson. 1981. Hawaiian Nudibranchs. China Color Printing Co., Inc. Taipei, Taiwan. 112 pp.

Bleakney, J. Sherman. 1996. Sea Slugs of Atlantic Canada and the Gulf of Maine. Nimbus Publishing Ltd, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 216 pp.

Boutet, Michel, Robert Gourguet & Jean Letourneux. 2020. Marine molluscs of French Polynesia. Au Vent Des Iles. 766 pp.

Chave, E. H. & Alexander Malahoff. 1998. In Deeper Waters. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 125 pp.

Cobb, Gary & Richard Willan. 2006. Undersea Jewels: A Color Guide to Nudibranchs. 310 pp.

Colin, Patrick L. & Charles Arneson. 1995. Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. Coral Reef Press, Beverly Hills. 296 pp.

Coleman, Neville. 1989. Nudibranchs of the South Pacific. Nevile Coleman's Sea Australia Resource Center, Springwood, Australia. 64 pp.

Coleman, Neville. 2001. 1001 Nudibranchs. Neville Coleman's Underwater Geographic, Springwood, Australia. 144 pp.

Coleman, Neville. 2008. Nudibranchs Encyclopedia: Catalogue of Asia. Indo-Pacific Sea Slugs. Neville Coleman's Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd. 416 pp.

Colin, Patrick & Charles Arneson. 1995. Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. Coral Reef Press, Beverly Hills. 296 pp.

Comacho-Garcia, Yolanda, Terrence M. Gosliner & Angel Valdes. 2005. Field Guide to the Sea Slugs of the Tropical Eastern Pacific. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 129 pp.

Debelius, Helmut. 1996. Nudibranchs and Sea Snails Indo-Pacific Field Guide. IKAN-Unsterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt. 321 pp.

Debelius, Helmut & Rudy Kuiter. 2007. Nudibranchs of the World. IKAN-Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt. 360 pp.

Edmondson, Charles Howard. 1946. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Special Publication of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Honolulu. 381 pp.

Eydoux, J. F. & F. L. Souleyet. 1852. Voyage autour du Monde execute pendant les annees 1836 et 1837 sur la corvette La Bonite. Paris. Zoologique Mollusques, Vol. 2, 644 pp.

Fielding, Ann. 1979. Hawaiian Reefs and Tidepools. Oriental Pub. Co., Honolulu. 103 pp.

Gosliner, Terrence. 1987. Nudibranchs of Southern Africa. Sea Challengers, Monterey. 136 pp.

Gosliner, Terrence, David W. Behrens & Gary C. Williams. 1996. Coral Reef Animals of the Indo-Pacific. Sea Challengers, Monterey. 314 pp.

Gosliner, Terrence, David W. Behrens & Angel Valdez. 2008. Indo-Pacific Nudibranchs and Sea Slugs: A Field Guide to the World's Most Diverse Fauna. Sea Challengers Natural History Books, Gig Harbor, Washington. 425 pp.

Gosliner, Terrence, Angel Valdez & David Behrens. 2015. Nudibranch and Sea Slug Identification--Indo-Pacific. New World Publications, Jacksonville, Florida. 408 pp.

Gosliner, Terrence, Angel Valdez & David Behrens. 2018. Nudibranch and Sea Slug Identification--Indo-Pacific, 2nd edition. New World Publications, Jacksonville, Florida. 452 pp.

Hazime, Masuda, Nakamura Hiroharu, Rin Kimiyoshi & Kobayashi Yasushi. 1986. Marine Invertebrates. Tokai University Press. 256 pp.

Hermosilla, Alicia, David W. Behrens & Eduardo Rios Jara.  2006. Opistobranquios de Mexico. 143 pp.

Herve, Jean-Francois. 2010. Guide des Nudibrancches de Nouvelle-Caledonie et autres Opisthobranches. 401 pp.

Hickman, jr., Cleveland P. & Yves Finet. 1999. A Field Guide to Marine Mollusks of Galapagos. 150 pp.

Hoover, John P. 1997. Hawaii's Underwater Paradise. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu. 64 pp.

Hoover, John P. 1998. Hawaii's Sea Creatures, A Guide to Hawaii's Marine Invertebrates. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu. 366 pp.

Hoover, John P. 2006. Hawaii's Sea Creatures, A Guide to Hawaii's Marine Invertebrates (revised edition). Mutual Publishing, Honolulu. 366 pp.

Huisman, John M., Isabella A. Abbott & Celia M. Smith. 2007. Hawaiian Reef Plants. University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. 264 pp.

Humann, Paul & Ned Deloach. 2010. Reef Creature Identification: Tropical Pacific. New World Publications, Jacksonville. 497 pp.

Johnson, Scott. 1982. Living Seashells. Oriental Publishing Company, Honolulu, Hawaii. 117 pp.

Kay, Alison E. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells: Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii-Section 4. Mollusca. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 653 pp.

Kay, Alison E. & Olive Schoenberg-Dole. 1991. Shells of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 87 pp.

Koh, Dong Bum. 2006. Sea Slugs of Korea. Pungdeung Publishing, Korea. 248 pp.

Lalli, Carol M. & R. W. Gilmer. 1989. Pelagic Snails. Stanford: Stanford University Press, Stanford. 259 pp.

MacFarland, Frank Mace. 1966. Studies of Opisthbranchiate Mollusks of the Pacific Coast of North America. California Academy of Sciences. 546 pp.

Marshall, Julie G. & Richard C. Willan. 1999. Nudibranchs of Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 256 pp.

McDonald, Gary R. 1980. Guide to the Nudibranchs of California: Including Most Species Found from Alaska to Oregon. American Malacologists. 72 pp.

Milisen, Jeff. 2020. A Field Guide to Blackwater Diving in Hawai'i. Mutual Publishing. Honolulu, Hawaii. 282 pp.

Moles, Juan, B. Brenzinger, M. I. Berning, A. Martynov, T. Korshunova & M. Schrödl. 2023. Systematic rearrangements in an all-genus phylogeny of side-gilled slugs (Heterobranchia: Pleurobranchida). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad162.

Morris, P. A.
1974. Pacific Coast Shells (2nd edition). Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 297 pp.

Nakano, Rie. 2004. Opisthobranchs of Japan Islands. Ruttles, inc, Tokyo. 304 pp.

Okutani, Takashi. 2000. Marine Mollusks in Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo. 1221 pp.

Ono, Atsushi. 1999. Opisthobranchs of Kerama Islands. TBS-Britannica Co., Tokyo. 183 pp.

Ono, Atsushi.  2004. Opisthobranchs of Ryukyu Islands. Ruttles, inc, Tokyo. 304 pp.

Orr, J. D. 1981. Hong Kong Nudibranchs. Urban Council of Hong Kong. 82 pp.

Picton, B. E. & Morrow, C. C. 1994. A Field Guide to the Nudibranchs of the British Isles. Immel Publishing Ltd., 20 Berkeley Street, Berkeley Square, London. 128 pp.

Quirk, Stephen & Betsy Harrison. 1972. Hawaiian Seashells. Bloom Enterprises, Honolulu. 30 pp.

Quirk, Stephen J. G. & Charles S. Wolfe. 1974. Seashells of Hawaii. W W Distributors Ltd., Honolulu. 32 pp.

Ryanskiy, Andrey & Yury Ivanov. 2019. Nudibranchs of the Coral Triangle: Reef ID Books. Andrey Ryanskiy. 150 pp.

Salvat, Bernard & Philippe Bacchet. 2011. Guide des Recifs Coralliens de Tahiti et Ses Iles. Au Vent des Isles. 365 pp.

Schrodl, Michael. 2003. Sea Slugs of Southern South America. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany. 165 pp

Severns, Mike. 2000. Hawaiian Seashells. Island Heritage Publishing, 'Aiea, Hawaii. 277 pp.

Severns, Mike. 2011. Shells of the Hawaiian Islands-the Sea Shells. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany. 562 pp.

Suzuki, Keiu. 2000. Opisthobranchs of Izu Peninsula. TBS-Britannica Co., Tokyo. 178 pp.

Takamasa, Tonozuka. 2003. Opisthobranchs of Bali and Indonesia. Hankyu Communications Co., Tokyo. 164 pp.

Tinker, S. 1952. Pacific Sea Shells. Mercantile, Honolulu. 230 pp.

Tinker, S. 1958. Pacific Sea Shells (revised edition). Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, Vermont. 240 pp.

Valdes, Angel, Jeff Hamann, David W. Behrens & Anne DuPont. 2006. Caribbean Sea Slugs. Sea Challengers Natural History Books, Gig Harbor, Washington. 289 pp.

Van der Spoel, S. 1967. Euthecosomata, a Group with Remarkable Developmental Stages (Gastropods, Pteropoda). Gorinchem: H. Noorduijn. 375 pp.

Wells, Fred E. & Clayton W. Bryce. 1993. Sea Slugs of Western Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Australia. 184 pp.

Willan, Richard C. & Neville Coleman. 1984. Nudibranchs of Australasia. Neville Coleman's AMPI, Springwood, Australia. 56 pp.

Wrobell, David & Claudia Mills. 1998. Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates. Sea Challengers, Monterey, California. 108 pp.

Yonow, Nathalie. 2008. Sea Slugs of the Red Sea. Pensoft. 304 pp.

Zsilavecz, Guido. 2007. Nudibranchs of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay. 104 pp.


Alexander, J. & A. Valdes. 2013. The ring doesn't mean a thing: Molecular data suggest a new taxonomy for two Pacific species of sea hares (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia, Aplysiidae). Pacific Science 67(2): 283-294.

Austin, J., T. Gosliner & M. A. E. Malaquias.
2018. Systematic revision, diversity patterns and trophic ecology of the tropical Indo-West Pacific sea slug genus Phanerophthalmus A. Adams, 1850 (Cephalaspidea, Haminoeidae). Invertebrate Systematics 32. 1336–1387. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS17086.

Baba, K.
1969. Records of Learchis indica Bergh, 1896 from Japan and Hawaii (Nudibranchia-Eolidoidea). Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 16(6): 400-403.

Baba, K. & I. Hamatani.
1963. Anatomy of Embletonia gracilis paucipapillata n. ssp. from Osaka Bay, Japan (Nudibranchia-Eolidoidea). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 11(2): 399-402, Pl. 17.

Bandel, K. 2005. Living fossils among tiny Allogastropoda with high and slender shell from the reef environment of the Gulf of Aqaba with remarks on fossil and recent relatives. Mitt. Geol.-Paläont. Inst. Universität Hamburg 89: 1-24.

Bazzicalupo, E.,  F. Crocetta, T. M. Gosliner, V. Berteaux-Lecellier, Y. E. Camacho-García, S. Chandran & A. Valdes. 2020. Molecular and morphological systematics of Bursatella leachii de Blainville, 1817 and Stylocheilus striatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 reveal cryptic diversity in pantropically distributed taxa (Mollusca : Gastropoda : Heterobranchia). Invertebrate Systematics, 34, 535–568.

Bergh, R. S.
1900. Die opisthobranchen. ergebnisseeiner reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland, 1896-1897). Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 13: 207-246.

Bergh, R. S. 1905. Die Opisthobranchiata der Siboga expedition. Siboga-Expeditie. E. J. Brill, Leiden 50: 1-248.

Bertsch, H. & T. M. Gosliner.
1989. Chromodorid nudibranchs from the Hawaiian Islands. Veliger 32(3): 247-265.

Bertsch, H. & S. Johnson.
1979. Three new Opisthobranch records for the Hawaiian Islands. Veliger 22(1): 41-44.

Bertsch, H. & S. Johnson. 1980. Preliminary analysis of the geographic and bathymetric distributions of Hawaiian chromodorids (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Festivus 12(6): 73-77.

Bertsch, H., & S. Johnson. 1982. Three new species of dorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from the Hawaiian Islands. Veliger 24(3): 208-218.

Bouchet, P., J. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M, Schrödl & E. Strong. 2017. Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families: Malacologia, 61(1–2):1-526.

Brunckhorst, D. J. 1993. The systematics and phylogeny of phyllidiid nudibranchs (Doridoidea). Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 16: 1-107.

Carlson, C. & P. J. Hoff. 2003. The opisthobranchs of the Mariana Islands. Micronesica 35-36: 271-293.

Carmona, L., M. Pola, T. M. Gosliner, & J. L. Cervera. 2013. A Tale That Morphology Fails to Tell: A Molecular Phylogeny of Aeolidiidae (Aeolidida, Nudibranchia,
Gastropoda). PLoS ONE 8(5): e63000. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063000

Carmona, L., M. Pola, T. M. Gosliner, & J. L. Cervera. 2014. The end of a long controversy: systematics of the genus Limenandra (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae). Helgoland Marine Research, 68: 37-48.

Carmona, L., M. Pola, T. M. Gosliner, & J. L. Cervera. 2014. Review of Baeolidia, the largest genus of Aeolidiidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), with the description of five new species. Zootaxa 3802 (4): 477–514.

Carmona, L., B. R. Lei, M. Pola, T. M. Gosliner, A. Valdes & J. L. Cervera. 2014. Untangling the Spurilla neapolitana (Delle Chiaje, 1841) species complex: a review of the genus Spurilla Bergh, 1864 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: 170 132–154.

Carmona, L., V. Bhave, R. Salunkhe, M. Pola, T. M. Gosliner & J. L. Cervera. 2014. Systematic review of Anteaeolidiella (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Aeolidiidae) based on morphological and molecular data, with a description of three new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 171: 108–132.

Carmona, L., M. Pola, T. Gosliner & J. Cervera. 2017. Integrative taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Bulbaeolidia (Nudibranchia: Aeolidida). Journal of Molluscan Studiea, 83(4), 440-450.

Cella, K., L. Carmona, I.Ekimova, A. Chichvarkhin, D. Schepetov & T. M. Gosliner. 2016. A Radical Solution: The Phylogeny of the Nudibranch Family Fionidae. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0167800. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167800.

Chan, J. M. & T. M. Gosliner. 2005. Preliminary phylogeny of Thordisa (Nudibranchia: Discodorididae) with descriptions of five new species. Veliger 48(4): 284-308.

Churchill, C. K. C., A. Alejandrino, A. Valdes, D. Ó Foighil. 2013, Parallel changes in genital morphology delineate cryptic diversification of planktonic nudibranchs. Proc R Soc B 280: 20131224.

Churchill, C. K. C.; A. Valdes, A; D. Ó Foighil. 2014. Molecular and morphological systematics of neustonic nudibranchs (Mollusca : Gastropoda : Glaucidae : Glaucus), with descriptions of three new cryptic species. Invertebrate Systematics. 28(2): 174-195.

Corse, E., J. Rampal, C. Cuoc, N. Pech, Y. Perez & A. Gilles. 2013. Phylogenetic Analysis of Thecosomata Blainville, 1824 (Holoplanktonic Opisthobranchia) Using
Morphological and Molecular Data. PLoS ONE 8(4): e59439. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059439.

Dayrat, B. 2006. A taxonomic revision of Paradoris sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Doridina). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 147(2): 124-237.

Dayrat, B. 2010. A monographic revision of basal discodorid sea slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Doridina). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences Volume 61, Supplement 1: 403 pp.

Dayrat  B., M. Conrad, S. Balayan, T. R. White, C. Albrecht, R. Golding, S. R. Gomes, M. G. Harasewych & A. M. F. Martins. 2011. Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of Pulmonate Gastropods (Mollusca): New Insights From Increased Taxon Sampling. Mol. Phylogenetics Evol. 59(2): 425-37.

Epstein, H. E.,  J. M. Hallas, R. F. Johnson, A. Lopez & T. M. Gosliner. 2018. Reading between the lines: revealing cryptic species diversity and colour patterns in Hypselodoris nudibranchs (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Chromodorididae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, XX, 1–74.

Fahey, S. J. & M. J. Garson. 2002. Geographic variation of natural products of  the tropical nudibranch Asteronotus cespitosus. J. Chem. Ecol. 28(9): 1773-1785.

Fassio, G., M. Stefani, V. Russini, B. Buge, P. Bouchet, N. Treneman, M. E. Maquaias, S. Schiaparelli, M. V. Modica & M. Oliverio. 2023. Neither slugs nor snails: a molecular reappraisal of the gastropod family Velutinidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2023, 197, 924–964.

Faucci, Anuschka, R. J. Toonen &  M. G. Hadfield. 2007. Host shift and speciation in a coral-feeding nudibranch. Proc. R. Soc. B. 274: 111–119.

Feliciano, K., M. A. E. Malaquias, C. Stout, B. Brenzinger, T. M. Gosliner & A. Valdes. 2021. Molecular and morphological analyses reveal pseudocryptic diversity in Micromelo undatus (Bruguière, 1792) (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Aplustridae). Systematics and Biodiversity. DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2021.1939458.

Ghanimi, H., M. Schrodl, J. H. R. Goddard, M. Ballesteros, T. M. Gosliner, Y. Buske & A. Valdes. 2020. Stargazing under the sea: molecular and morphological data reveal a constellation of species in the Berthella stellata (Risso, 1826) species complex (Mollusca, Heterobranchia, Pleurobranchidae). Mar. Biodivers. 50, 11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-019-01027-w

Gochfeld, D. J. & G. S. Aeby. 1997. Control of populations of the coral-feeding nudibranch Phestilla sibogae by fish and crustacean predators. Mar. Biol. 130: 63–69.

Golestani H., F. Crocetta, V. Padula, Y. Camacho-Garcia, J. Langeneck, D. Poursanidis, M. Pola, M. B. Yokes, J. L. Cervera, D. Jung, T. M. Gosliner, J. F. Araya, Y. Hooker, M. Schrodl, & A. Valdes. 2019. The little Aplysia coming of age: from one species to a complex of species complexes in Aplysia parvula (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, XX, 1–52.

Gonzales, C &  T. Gosliner. 2014. Six New Species of Philine (Opisthobranchia: Philinidae) from the Tropical Indo-Pacific. in:  Gary C., and Terrence M. Gosliner, eds. 2014. The Coral Triangle: The 2011 Hearst Philippine Biodiversity Expedition. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California 94118, USA.

Goodheart, J., Y. Camacho-Garcia, V. Padula, M. Schrodl, J. L. Cervera, T. M. Gosliner, and A. Valdes. 2015. Systematics and biogeography of Pleurobranchus Cuvier, 1804, sea slugs (Heterobranchia: Nudipleura: Pleurobranchidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. doi: 10.1111/zoj.12237

Gosliner, T. M. 1976. The aeolid nudibranchs of the Hawaiian Islands. Western Society of Malacologists Annual Report 9: 38.

Gosliner, T. M. 1980. The systematics of the Aeolidacea (Nudibranchia: Mollusca) of the Hawaiian Islands, with descriptions of two new species. Pacific Science 33(1): 37-77.

Gosliner, T. M., S. Johnson, & H. Bertsch. 1986. Additions to the opisthobranch gastropod fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Western Society of Malacologists, Annual Report 18: 14-17.

Gosliner, T. M. 1987. Review of the nudibranch genus Melibe (Opisthobranchia: Dendronotacea) with descriptions of  two new species. Veliger 29(4): 400-414.

Gosliner, T. M. & R. C. Willan. 1991. Review of the Flabellinidae (Nudibranchia: Aeolidacea) from the tropical Indo-Pacific, with the descriptions of five new species. Veliger 34(2): 97-133.

Gosliner, T. M. & R. F. Johnson. 1999. Phylogeny of Hypselodoris (Nudibranchia: Chromodorididae) with a review of the monophyletic clade of Indo-Pacific species, including descriptions of twelve new species. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 125: 1-114.

Gosliner, T. M. & S. R. Fahey. 2011. Previously undocumented diversity and abundance of cryptic species: a phylogenetic analysis of Indo-Pacific Arminidae Rafinesque, 1814 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) with descriptions of 20 new species of Dermatobranchus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 245-356.

Gosliner, T. M. 2011. Six new species of aglajid opisthobranch mollusks from the tropical Indo-Pacific. Zootaxa 2751: 1–24.

Gould, A. A. 1852. United States exploring expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. XII Mollusca and shells, xv + 510 pp., with an atlas of plates, 1856.

Grande, C., J. Templado, J. L. Cervera & R. Zardoya. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Euthyneura (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21: 303-313.

Harris, Larry G. 1968. Notes on the biology and distribution of the aeolid nudibranch (Gastropoda), Phestilla melanobrachia Bergh, 1874. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. XVI (3): 193-198.

Harris, Larry G. 1975. Studies on the life history of two coral-eating nudibranchs of the genus Phestilla. Biol. Bull. 149: 539-550.

Hermosillo, A. & A. Valdés. 2007. Five new species of Aeolid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) from the Tropical Eastern Pacific. American Malacological Bulletin, 22: 119137.

Holleman, J. J. 1972. Observations on growth, feeding, reproduction, and development in the opisthobranch, Fiona pinnata (Eschscholtz). Veliger 15: 142-46.

Janssen, A. W., S. L. Bush & N Bednarsek. 2019. The shelled pteropods of the northeast Pacific Ocean (Mollusca: Heterobranchia, Pteropoda). Zoosymposia 13: 305–346.

Jensen, K. R., P. J. Krug, A. Dupont & M. Nishina. 2014. A Review of Taxonomy and Phylogenetic Relationships in the Genus Costasiella (Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa), with a Description of a New Species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 1–13. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyu048.

Johnson, R. F. & T. M. Gosliner. 2001. Two new species of Thorunna Bergh 1878 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Chromodorididae) from the Indo-Pacific. Bollettino Malacologico, Roma 37 (5-8): 143-150.

Johnson, R. F. 2010. Breaking family ties: taxon sampling and molecular phylogeny of chromodorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Zoologica Scripta, no. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00457.x.

Johnson, R. F. & T. M. Gosliner. 2012. Traditional Taxonomic Groupings Mask Evolutionary History: A Molecular Phylogeny and New Classification of the
Chromodorid Nudibranchs. PLoS ONE 7(4): e33479. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033479.

Johnson, S. 1983. Distribution of two nudibranch species on a subtidal reef on the western shore of Oahu, Hawaii. Veliger 25(4): 356-364.

Johnson, S. 1989. Temporal patterns of nudibranch mollusk activity on a subtidal Hawaiian reef. Veliger 32(1): 1-7.

Kawaguti, S. & K. Baba. 1966. Feeding and spawning habits of a bivalved gastropod, Julia japonica. Biological J. Okayama Univ. 12: 1-9.

Kay, E. A. 1961. A new opisthobranch mollusc from Hawaii. Pac. Sci. 15: 112-113.

Kay, E. A. 1962a. A bivalved gastropod from the Hawaiian Islands. Nature (London) 195: 96-97.

Kay, E. A. 1962b. Julia exquisita Gould, a bivalved gastropod. Pac. Sci. 16: 434-435.

Kay, E. A. 1962c. Bivalved Gastropods in the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Shell News. 11(2): 3.

Kay, E. A. 1964a. The Aplysiidae of the Hawaiian Islands. Proc. Malac. Soc. London 36: 173-190.

Kay, E. A. 1964b. A new species of Berthelinia and its associated sacoglossans in the Hawaiian Islands. Proc. Malac. Soc. London 36: 191-197.

Kay, E. A. 1967. The composition and relationships of the marine molluscan fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Venus 25: 94-104.

Kay, E. A. & D. K. Young. 1969. The Doridacea (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Hawaiian Islands. Pac. Sci. 23(2): 172-231.

Kempf, S. C. 1984. Symbiosis between the zooxanthella Symbiodinium (=Gymnodinium) microadriaticum (Freudenthal) and four species of nudibranchs. Biological Bulletin 166(1): 110-126.

Kocot, K. M.,  J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. doi:10.1038/nature10382

Kohn, A. J. 1959. The ecology of Conus in Hawaii. Ecological Monogr. 29: 47-90.

Kosuge, S. 1979. Report on the mollusca on guyots from the central Pacific collected by the 2nd and 3rd cruises of the R/V Kaiyomaru in 1972 and 73 with descriptions of twelve new species. Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology, Tokyo 1: 24-35.

Korshunova, T., A. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, W. I. Mudianta, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl  & B. Picton. 2017. Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). ZooKeys 717: 1-139.

Krug, P. J., J. E. Vendetti, A. K. Rodriguez, J. N. Retana, Y. M. Hirano, & C. D. Trowbridge. 2013. Integrative species delimitation in photosynthetic sea slugs
reveals twenty candidate species in three nominal taxa studied for drug discovery, plastid symbiosis or biological control. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 69(3): 1101–1119. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.07.009.

Krug, P. J., N. L. W. S. Wong, M. R. Medina, T. M. Gosliner, & A. A. Valdes. 2018. Cryptic speciation yields remarkable mimics: A new genus of sea slugs that masquerade as toxic algae (Caulerpa spp.).  Zool Scr. 47: 699–713. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12310.

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Species list